ubelt.util_hash module

Wrappers around hashlib functions to generate hash signatures for common data.

The hashes are deterministic across python versions and operating systems. This is verified by CI testing on Windows, Linux, Python with 2.7, 3.4, and greater, and on 32 and 64 bit versions.

Use Case #1: You have data that you want to hash. If we assume the data is in standard python scalars or ordered sequences: e.g. tuple, list, odict, oset, int, str, etc…, then the solution is hash_data().

Use Case #2: You have a file you want to hash, but your system doesn’t have a sha1sum executable (or you dont want to use Popen). The solution is hash_file()

The ubelt.util_hash.hash_data() function recursively hashes most builtin python data structures. This is similar to the deephash functionality provided in [PypiDeepDiff].

The ubelt.util_hash.hash_file() function hashes data on disk. Both of the aforementioned functions have options for different hashers and alphabets.

References

Example

>>> import ubelt as ub
>>> data = ub.odict(sorted({
>>>     'param1': True,
>>>     'param2': 0,
>>>     'param3': [None],
>>>     'param4': ('str', 4.2),
>>> }.items()))
>>> # hash_data can hash any ordered builtin object
>>> ub.hash_data(data, hasher='sha256')
0b101481e4b894ddf6de57...

Example

>>> import ubelt as ub
>>> from os.path import join
>>> fpath = (ub.Path.appdir('ubelt/tests').ensuredir() / 'empty_file').touch()
>>> ub.hash_file(fpath, hasher='sha1')
da39a3ee5e6b4b0d3255bfef95601890afd80709

Note

The exact hashes generated for data object and files may change in the future. When this happens the HASH_VERSION attribute will be incremented.

Note

[util_hash.Note.1] pre 0.10.2, the protected function _hashable_sequence defaulted to types=True setting to True here for backwards compat. This means that extensions using the _hashable_sequence helper will always include types in their hashable encoding regardless of the argument setting. We may change this in the future, to be more consistent. This is a minor detail unless you are getting into the weeds of how we coerce technically non-hashable sequences into a hashable encoding.

ubelt.util_hash.hash_data(data, hasher=NoParam, base=NoParam, types=False, convert=False, extensions=None)[source]

Get a unique hash depending on the state of the data.

Parameters:
  • data (object) – Any sort of loosely organized data

  • hasher (str | Hasher | NoParamType) – string code or a hash algorithm from hashlib. Valid hashing algorithms are defined by hashlib.algorithms_guaranteed (e.g. ‘sha1’, ‘sha512’, ‘md5’) as well as ‘xxh32’ and ‘xxh64’ if xxhash is installed. Defaults to ‘sha512’.

  • base (List[str] | str | NoParamType) – list of symbols or shorthand key. Valid keys are ‘abc’, ‘hex’, and ‘dec’. Defaults to ‘hex’

  • types (bool) – If True data types are included in the hash, otherwise only the raw data is hashed. Defaults to False.

  • convert (bool, default=True) – if True, try and convert the data to json an the json is hashed instead. This can improve runtime in some instances, however the hash may differ from the case where convert=False.

  • extensions (HashableExtensions | None) – a custom HashableExtensions instance that can overwrite or define how different types of objects are hashed.

Note

The types allowed are specified by the HashableExtensions object. By default ubelt will register:

OrderedDict, uuid.UUID, np.random.RandomState, np.int64, np.int32, np.int16, np.int8, np.uint64, np.uint32, np.uint16, np.uint8, np.float16, np.float32, np.float64, np.float128, np.ndarray, bytes, str, int, float, long (in python2), list, tuple, set, and dict

Returns:

text representing the hashed data

Return type:

str

Note

The alphabet26 base is a pretty nice base, I recommend it. However we default to base='hex' because it is standard. You can try the alphabet26 base by setting base='abc'.

Example

>>> import ubelt as ub
>>> print(ub.hash_data([1, 2, (3, '4')], convert=False))
60b758587f599663931057e6ebdf185a...
>>> print(ub.hash_data([1, 2, (3, '4')], base='abc',  hasher='sha512')[:32])
hsrgqvfiuxvvhcdnypivhhthmrolkzej
ubelt.util_hash.hash_file(fpath, blocksize=1048576, stride=1, maxbytes=None, hasher=NoParam, base=NoParam)[source]

Hashes the data in a file on disk.

The results of this function agree with standard hashing programs (e.g. sha1sum, sha512sum, md5sum, etc…)

Parameters:
  • fpath (PathLike) – location of the file to be hashed.

  • blocksize (int) – Amount of data to read and hash at a time. There is a trade off and the optimal number will depend on specific hardware. This number was chosen to be optimal on a developer system. See “dev/bench_hash_file” for methodology to choose this number for your use case. Defaults to 2 ** 20.

  • stride (int) – strides > 1 skip data to hash, useful for faster hashing, but less accurate, also makes hash dependent on blocksize. Defaults to 1.

  • maxbytes (int | None) – if specified, only hash the leading maxbytes of data in the file.

  • hasher (str | Hasher | NoParamType) – string code or a hash algorithm from hashlib. Valid hashing algorithms are defined by hashlib.algorithms_guaranteed (e.g. ‘sha1’, ‘sha512’, ‘md5’) as well as ‘xxh32’ and ‘xxh64’ if xxhash is installed. Defaults to ‘sha512’.

  • base (List[str] | int | str | NoParamType) – list of symbols or shorthand key. Valid keys are ‘abc’, ‘hex’, and ‘dec’, 10, 16, 26, 32. Defaults to ‘hex’.

References

Example

>>> import ubelt as ub
>>> from os.path import join
>>> dpath = ub.Path.appdir('ubelt/tests/test-hash').ensuredir()
>>> fpath = dpath / 'tmp1.txt'
>>> fpath.write_text('foobar')
>>> print(ub.hash_file(fpath, hasher='sha1', base='hex'))
8843d7f92416211de9ebb963ff4ce28125932878

Example

>>> import ubelt as ub
>>> dpath = ub.Path.appdir('ubelt/tests/test-hash').ensuredir()
>>> fpath = dpath / 'tmp2.txt'
>>> # We have the ability to only hash at most ``maxbytes`` in a file
>>> fpath.write_text('abcdefghijklmnop')
>>> h0 = ub.hash_file(fpath, hasher='sha1', base='hex', maxbytes=11, blocksize=3)
>>> h1 = ub.hash_file(fpath, hasher='sha1', base='hex', maxbytes=32, blocksize=3)
>>> h2 = ub.hash_file(fpath, hasher='sha1', base='hex', maxbytes=32, blocksize=32)
>>> h3 = ub.hash_file(fpath, hasher='sha1', base='hex', maxbytes=16, blocksize=1)
>>> h4 = ub.hash_file(fpath, hasher='sha1', base='hex', maxbytes=16, blocksize=18)
>>> assert h1 == h2 == h3 == h4
>>> assert h1 != h0
>>> # Using a stride makes the result dependent on the blocksize
>>> h0 = ub.hash_file(fpath, hasher='sha1', base='hex', maxbytes=11, blocksize=3, stride=2)
>>> h1 = ub.hash_file(fpath, hasher='sha1', base='hex', maxbytes=32, blocksize=3, stride=2)
>>> h2 = ub.hash_file(fpath, hasher='sha1', base='hex', maxbytes=32, blocksize=32, stride=2)
>>> h3 = ub.hash_file(fpath, hasher='sha1', base='hex', maxbytes=16, blocksize=1, stride=2)
>>> h4 = ub.hash_file(fpath, hasher='sha1', base='hex', maxbytes=16, blocksize=18, stride=2)
>>> assert h1 != h2 != h3
>>> assert h1 == h0
>>> assert h2 == h4

Example

>>> import ubelt as ub
>>> from os.path import join
>>> dpath = ub.Path.appdir('ubelt/tests/test-hash').ensuredir()
>>> fpath = ub.touch(join(dpath, 'empty_file'))
>>> # Test that the output is the same as sha1sum executable
>>> if ub.find_exe('sha1sum'):
>>>     want = ub.cmd(['sha1sum', fpath], verbose=2)['out'].split(' ')[0]
>>>     got = ub.hash_file(fpath, hasher='sha1')
>>>     print('want = {!r}'.format(want))
>>>     print('got = {!r}'.format(got))
>>>     assert want.endswith(got)
>>> # Do the same for sha512 sum and md5sum
>>> if ub.find_exe('sha512sum'):
>>>     want = ub.cmd(['sha512sum', fpath], verbose=2)['out'].split(' ')[0]
>>>     got = ub.hash_file(fpath, hasher='sha512')
>>>     print('want = {!r}'.format(want))
>>>     print('got = {!r}'.format(got))
>>>     assert want.endswith(got)
>>> if ub.find_exe('md5sum'):
>>>     want = ub.cmd(['md5sum', fpath], verbose=2)['out'].split(' ')[0]
>>>     got = ub.hash_file(fpath, hasher='md5')
>>>     print('want = {!r}'.format(want))
>>>     print('got = {!r}'.format(got))
>>>     assert want.endswith(got)